(standard disclaimer: these links were live in December 2012; apologies in advance if they're no longer active)


General Sherman, Special Field Order #15 (Freedmen and Southern Society Project)
Committee of Edisto Island Freedmen, Petition to the Freedmen's Bureau Commissioner, 1865 (Freedmen and Southern Society Project) - with reply by O.O. Howard
Walt Whitman, "When Lilacs Last in the Dooryard Bloom'd" (Bartleby.com)
Family Record: Before the War and Since the War (Library of Congress)
Johnson Pardoning Petitioners at the White House (SonOfTheSouth.net)
Presidential Pardon to R. T. Preston of Montgomery C., VA (Digital Library of Georgia)
Confederate Amnesty Papers (National Archives) - here's one example with additional details & discussion, via DeadConfederates.com
HarpWeek (Harper's Weekly - covers 13th, 14th, 15th Amendments, Johnson's impeachment, and election of 1876)
Thomas Kelly engraving, 15th Amendment Celebration (Library of Congress; another version - larger - posted on Wikipedia Commons)


Black Codes (Mississippi, 1865)
Exodusters - Homestead (Nebraska NPS); Flyer honoring Benjamin Singleton (Kansas Historical Society); "Exodusters Mark the Spot" (Kansas City PL); Harper's Weekly Illustrations (Territorial Kansas Online)
Western Migration and Homesteading online exhibit (Library of Congress, the African-American Mosaic)
Frederick Douglass, "Oration in Memory of Abraham Lincoln," 1876 at the unveiling of the Freedmen's Monument (TeachingAmericanHistory.org)

Interpretations, Memory, Historiography

external image colfax1.jpg
Francis Couvares, et al., Interpretations of American History, Volume 1: Through Reconstruction, 8e (Bedford/St. Martins: 2009), "The Reconstruction Era: How Large Its Scope?" 347-362.
The "Lost Cause" - 3 encyclopedia versions: E of the Confederacy; E of Alabama; E of Virginia
History Channel "The Failure of Reconstruction" (2:35 + 30-second ad)
"A Massacre and a Travesty," Eric Foner's review of two books on the Colfax Massacre for the Washington Post, 3/23/2008
Aaron Bady, "Lincoln Against the Radicals," Jacobin: A Magazine of Culture and Polemic, 11/26/12
Alan Brinkley, "Where Historians Disagree - Reconstruction," in American History: A Survey, 13e (2005)
Robert P. Green, Jr. "Reconstruction Historiography: A Source of Teaching Ideas" The Social Studies, July/August 1991, 153-157.
Great Blank Historical Marker photo (Tennessee Historical Commission)

Further Reading

Eric Foner, A Short History of Reconstruction (1990)
Steven Hahn, ed., Freedom: A Documentary History of Emancipation, 1861-1867 (2008)
Tony Horwitz, Confederates in the Attic: Dispatches from the Unfinished Civil War (1998)
Charles Lane, The Day Freedom Died: The Colfax Massacre, the Supreme Court, and the Betrayal of Reconstruction (2008)
Heather Richardson, West from Appomattox (2007)